Water (as a product)
We offer BOO (Build Own Operate) and BOOT (Build Own Operate Transfer) programs for seawater and brackish desalination projects of at least 3,000 m3/day in potable and pure water production.
The programs are designed to provide potable water production for humanitarian use or for industrial usages. The customer, usually a government entity or large industrial company, does not have to provide the substantial capital outlay normally required for such plants. The contracts are usually long-term, of 20 years or perhaps longer. Shorter term contracts usually result in a higher selling price for the water.
The investors are interested in water supply projects that provide for the needs of people, protect the environment, and are good for the local economy. They also require that the selling price of the water provides an attractive profit margin in excess of the cost to produce the water.
In many cases, energy supply for the desalination plant, often with contracted sale of surplus energy, may be added to these projects. Usually, land is provided by the customer. Civil works, construction, installation, intake, outfall, and product water delivery and/or distribution may be handled by either party. Of course, these things affect the water selling price.
Drinking water can be produced from any natural sources like groundwater, lakes and rivers (surface waters) or seawater.
Drinking water standards are set by the World Health organization or by the European Union.
Drinking water must be free of suspended solids, microorganisms and toxic chemicals. Mineral concentration recommendation vary from country to country but most of the minerals have a maximum concentration recommended to ensure safe, equilibrated and pleasant water to drink.
For bottled water, taste can vary upon calcium, magnesium, sulfate and iron content.
Process water covers the wide range of boiler feed water, cooling water for heat exchangers or engine, chemicals dilution, etc...
It should typically have a conductivity ranging from 0.1 to 50 uS/cm, with little to no hardness to avoid scaling in heating system.
Oxygen and carbon dioxide should be removed to prevent corrosion.
Tap water or fresh ground water are the most widely used source of water to produce process water.
Once demineralized, process water should be conditioned according to manufacturer's specification, usually up to pH 9 by adding caustic soda or ammonia.